The animal in man, the human in animals

12 Dec 2016

Biologist Dr. Doping tells about the origins of the human psyche, the principles of ethology and "floors" of perception. What makes us human? What is the "human recipe," from the point of view of the ethologist? Do chimpanzees theory thinking Possess?

When we look at human behavior, we usually see it as a whole, while passing on the different floors of behavioral forms and perception. The more fundamental basic properties involved in some form of behavior or a business, the easier it is to predict and guide this activity using the general laws of ethology, that is, the easier it control us, if we know these laws and can isolate some basic properties the behavior of those who they are, for example, our target group.

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Motivation - is the desire to achieve, the willingness to expend effort on something to achieve some goal. Motivation can be either low or high. We can not say that the low characteristic only of animals, and the high - only people. When we are dealing with motivation, you need to pay attention to the fact that the persistence in achieving goals can be measured. Motivation, as well as many properties and behaviors, amenable to experimental study.

Cognitive ethology and human ethology - is experimental science, in which some of the terminology familiar to the human sciences, acquire their quite clear language, and we do not operate outside these formulations, we operate is that we have to invest.

What is laziness?

12 Dec 2016

Some words about saving energy, the adaptive values and features of food production animals.

Laziness is "turning away from labor, from case studies; inclination to idleness and parasitism." Quite rightly, it is considered as a drawback, vice or even a mortal sin. Psychology distinguishes several types of laziness (from a lack of motivation from the weakness of the will, and so on. D.). In terms of biology, laziness - it's over-implementation of the principle of energy conservation. All living organisms seek to optimize the ratio of vital resources received and expended for this energy that is trying to get more by spending less. This law is not just a speculative conclusion, and the conclusion drawn on the basis of measurements.

Calculation of energy consumption have been actively used in the study of animal behavior from around the 1970s. to determine the adaptive value of a particular form of behavior. Definition of adaptive values or, in other words, the adaptive value of a particular form of behavior is one of the four objectives in the study of behavior, formulated the famous ethologist Nicholas Tinbergen. The most obvious principle of minimization of energy expenditure as a result of the analysis of food-procuring behavior. But it is observed in the complex animal behavior: foraging runs the risk of predator attack, direct competition from other individuals of the same species, the risk of parasite attacks, reproductive behavior.

Of course, the ratio of compensation and the effort is not always possible to accurately calculate and make an unambiguous conclusion about the adaptive value of a particular form of behavior. For example, some of the rats (usually a beta-individual, that is ranked second, but not the last step in the hierarchy) for a long time exploring the new object placed in the cage. Alpha individuals, making sure that the unknown object is not dangerous and has no nutritional value, ignore it. A similar difference in the research activity of alpha and beta species has recently been shown for the birds - finches Gould. This rule does not deny the principle of energy conservation. Individuals researchers, spending energy on useless study of the subject, engaged in long-term investment, because the living conditions are subject to change, and useless thing can now buy biological significance. Therefore, the community is helpful to have in their composition such "wasteful" individuals.

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Thus, to save power (ie the energy expended to meet certain requirements) biologically justified, as well as biologically necessary to produce energy (ie eat). To live, to eat. But if the man lives to eat, it's bad, maladaptive. As is the case with waste of energy obtained. Energy saving is necessary, but when such savings becomes the dominant motivation, then it is laziness, lack of.

FAQ: Sleep and Memory

12 Dec 2016

7 facts about what is happening with our memories during sleep

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People long ago discovered that the dream has some meaning for the memory, and expressed their understanding of the process in the proverb, "Sleep on it." Scientists after some time managed to gather evidence showing that our memory during sleep certain events occur.

  • 1.Recent studies have shown that if the subjects during the experiment after learning allow some time to sleep, then this leads to a significant improvement of the memory.

    Many experiments have been conducted with so-called declarative memory - the memory of the kind about which we can declare that we know something. For example, subjects who come into the lab, where investigate these phenomena, the evening issued a list of unfamiliar words to them, they had to remember. They learned the words, and in the morning they were tested. And it turned out that this early test, even if they woke up very early, at 6 o'clock in the morning, shows that they remember more words than if they were immediately asked after they had learned the words. To improve memory buy Cogitum, Semax, Piracetam, Cortexin, Pantogam and Phenotropil.
  • 2.However, not all types of declarative memory. About some types of memory, we can not say or declare, as we have, for example, cycling on. This is another kind of memory, called a "motor memory". It turned out that promotes sleep, including memory and motor type. For example, in experiments the subjects were asked to remember keystroke sequence. During the experiment, you must first press the left little finger on his left hand, the middle finger on his right hand and lose a certain sequence. The subject must remember this sequence. After this sequence in practice for some time, these people can be tested. If after they have learned a certain sequence, they go to sleep in the lab, it turns out, the next morning they perform this sequence with fewer errors. But it is very clearly shown that reduced the number of errors and reduces the time during which they lose this sequence. If they had some sort of problem areas - for example, they always forget that the seventh should be such a key is pressed in such a finger - then, as a rule, these terms are improved. Subjects begin suddenly, unexpectedly do them very well.

    If you take the control group, which was not allowed to sleep, that is, the period of training time will be exactly the same, but one group is sleeping, and the other does not sleep, the improvement in this deprived group, which is not allowed to sleep, does not occur. Thus, the memory phenomenon after sleep improvement was demonstrated both declarative and memory on motor types.
  • 3.In addition it has been demonstrated that the adoption of decisions or some interesting guesses come to us during sleep. Certainly many of these phenomena are well known. Recall that Mendeleev saw your table in a dream.

    In the mid-2000s. an attempt to simulate the phenomenon of insight (or insight) was made in the experiment. The subjects were given task in which they had a single sequence of numbers to generate a second sequence of numbers. We used only three digits, for example, 1, 4, 9, and 8 contain the sequence of numbers, for example, 11449494. rules generate a new sequence was simple: if the numbers are the same, you need to write the same, if different, the need to write a third. The trick is that the latest figures again generated sequence is a mirror reflection of the three that were before it. But people do not notice it, did not see this decision. Until such time as they do not see this task, the subjects went to bed. And they returned and again started to carry out this task the next morning. And it turned out that the percentage of guess about this trick people (guess performed the generation of new sequence is much faster) was significantly higher in the group allowed to sleep. The control group, which was not allowed to sleep, this improvement in time to solve this problem did not show. And interestingly, the subjects returned to the lab, began to do the task and immediately showed improvement over time. And then he said: "Oh, I see! There is such a trick, there is a mirror image. "
  • 4.There is a logical question: what is happening with our memory in a dream? And in order to understand what lies behind this phenomenon, it is necessary to tell what is happening to our neurons or our brain at a time when we are asleep. It turned out that the neurons that have some behavioral specialization, i.e. exhibit an increase its activation at a time when an execution of a behavior or action, or practicing the skill - repeat its activation, that is activated again precisely during sleep.

    Initially this phenomenon at the neuronal level was established in rats when recording neural activity when performing the skill and a dream. The animals were offered a fairly simple task to run around the ring and collect the food in this ring, scattered randomly. Before the beginning of these experiments were well established that there neurons associated with finding a specific location in the animal, i.e. place cell. When the animal ran on the ring and gathered food, in every moment in every place this ring activated its kind of a group of neurons. Jogging on the ring meant a change of neural group to another. You are watching the change of neural activations can see without looking at the animal, the animal moves in the ring.

    Then the researchers continued registration of neuronal activity after the animal curled up and fell asleep after studying the situation. And it turned out that, when an animal sleeps, neural group just follow each other, as if the animal runs through this ring. Only the activation of neurons was less than at the time when it was a real jogging. But the sequence and change of neuronal groups looked such a way that it allows scientists to believe that the animal is at this moment presents itself, or sees this run or that she dreams that jogging.
  • 5.In public registration of neuronal activity is possible only for medical reasons, and during sleep has not yet been evaluated. However, people can log the activity of the whole brain, for example, by functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. These methods make it possible to see a kind of global brain activity, because, for example, glucose uptake, or increased blood flow occurs where the higher the activity of neurons. And, accordingly, it is possible to observe the places where the most actively occurs glucose consumption or oxygen consumption in the brain. And in such experiments on humans it has been found that during sleep play, only to a lesser extent, the pattern of brain activity that was observed during the real performance of the skill.
  • 6.When all that can demonstrate how some repetitive neuronal activity, and the occurrence of some other activities which were not observed at the time when there was a real training or actual reproduction of the situation. It can be assumed that for improving memory phenomenon lies reproduction of neuronal activity during sleep, and at the same time adding the activity of some other neurons, all of which leads to the fact that the groups are associated with certain types of behavior are reorganized. And they have become somewhat different. They may be more detailed, less detailed, but they are different. And the fact that these groups are not initially formed groups of neurons presumably underlies the phenomenon of memory improvement after sleep.
  • 7.Open questions related to this topic, it is much more than closed. We actually do not know anything. Which neurons reproduce their activity? Obviously, not all. Obviously, the neuron less active, it generates a dream only a few action potentials, gives multiple activations. Why did he give a few activations? It is not clear. Are all the neurons that made up the group that was activated at the time of acquisition of a memory are activated again in a dream? That we do not know. It can be assumed that not all. But then the question arises as to which of them are? And why are they? Can one understand the patterns of what happens to these neuronal groups during sleep, alone, artificial neural combine these groups? If we know what to improve memory will activation of these cells, rather than those that can we artificially their activating, to create a group of neurons that has not been able to break up, and they now always be activated together and it it would lead to the existence of some kind of memory that would erase any purchase of another memory impossible? We currently do not know of such laws.

Mechanisms of action of antibiotics

12 Dec 2016

Biologist Dr. Doping tells about the mechanism of action of ribosomes, the protein biosynthetic apparatus and resistant strains of bacteria to antibiotics.

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Antibiotics is a small molecule natural, semisynthetic or synthetic origin, which inhibit the growth of bacteria. Mass production and use of antibiotics began during World War II, in 1943. Most of the known antibiotics produced by bacteria or fungi, which themselves are resistant to the antibiotic itself and provide a competitive advantage against other bacteria. The discovery of antibiotics revolutionized medicine and provide humanity with several decades of relatively safe existence.

Mechanisms of action of antibiotics

Certain types of antibiotics act as inhibitors of protein synthesis apparatus and the central part - the ribosome. The ribosome - a kind of factory, a large molecular machine weighing more than 2.5 megadalton and a diameter of about 200 angstroms, which are going to proteins in the cells of all living organisms. Ribosomes are studying with the 1950s, but today, this field of research is experiencing a rebirth. Interest in the study of protein prokaryotic (bacterial) cells biosynthesis apparatus due to the fact that it was bacterial ribosomes are targets for many types of antibiotics used in therapy.

Antibiotics bind to the ribosome and inhibit, i.e. slow or prevent the individual reactions which are catalyzed by the ribosome. They can compete with the binding site of the natural ligand or block a specific conformation of the ribosome. The individual structural elements of the ribosome have conformational mobility that allows it to interact with native substrates and to provide the complex process of protein biosynthesis. But some antibiotics may inhibit certain reactions. Due to this, protein synthesis stops or starts to happen correctly. As a result, abnormal proteins produced, and this leads to bacterial cell death.

Scientists were able to make much progress in the study of protein biosynthesis, precisely because at the moment a large number of known inhibitors. By inhibiting the individual reactions may be obtained new information about the molecular mechanism of action of ribosomes. On the other hand, can determine the molecular mechanism of inhibition. For some antibiotics, for example, proposed a molecular mechanism that was investigated in vitro. This mechanism has provided an inhibitory effect at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than actual use in therapy. The experiments have discovered another reaction, and which inhibits the antibiotic at low concentrations. If we have multiple steps, it is clear that one of their antibiotic effect. But since all the reaction difficult to verify, it is difficult to find exactly where the antibiotic exerts its destructive effect. Check all reactions requires considerable time and resources to research. There are several levels at which you can investigate the action of antibiotics. The most simple - grow bacterial cells, they add an antibiotic and see how the cells died. But this approach remains unknown how it happened. Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin injection - is very essential for DNA making.

Biosynthesis apparatus of Protein

There are a number of approaches that divide the processes that have been affected in the cell. Typically, processes related to DNA replication, transcription or translation. If it turns out that it is the processes associated with the broadcast, you can use the arsenal of techniques that have been developed - methods in vitro, when we use purified components of the protein-synthesizing system, ie, the ribosome, transfer RNA, protein elongation factor. In this case, the system adds only known components, and we know exactly what is going on in such a system. And then we can add inhibitor and analyze the reaction it touches.

The range of methods is quite wide. The recent boom in the field of protein biosynthesis studies occurred in the 2000s, when the first full three-dimensional structures of ribosomes, which were obtained by X-ray crystallography. During these studies in 2009 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. At this point, the researchers were divided into two camps. One group believed that outstanding issues remained, and you can minimize your research and start doing something else. And another group of scientists believe that everything is just beginning, because it is unclear molecular mechanism. Before receiving spatial structures functional studies resembled study of the black box. We took ribosome added thereto substrates, messenger RNA (media), transfer RNA, and the obtained polypeptide is output. What happened in the middle of this process - is unclear. With the advent of structural information the first time scientists were able to make experiments more directly. Now we know where a protein is located, where any nucleotide. So, we can assume how the one or the other functional center, make-directed mutagenesis and check how it will affect certain reactions.

Immediately after the occurrence of the first spatial structures were structures in which the ribosome was in combination with antibiotics. Then I was born the first understanding of where this antibiotic associated, in which the center, he can influence. Then these biochemical, biophysical studies have found a new life. Structural methods that have been developed have had a tremendous impact on the study of the ribosome. Later, there were methods cryoelectron microscopy, which now also allows to obtain the spatial structure of large macromolecular complexes with very high resolution - about 2.5-3 angstroms. Methods cryoelectron microscopy gradually replacing crystallography, a number of parameters they it has surpassed. Now we can assemble functional complex, to see where in the associated antibiotic, and make assumptions about its molecular mechanism of action. It is important that now obtain structural information takes days and weeks, not years, as it was before. This, of course, enormous scientific and technological progress.

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics

According to a 2014 World Health Organization report, about 23 000 deaths in the United States (and about 25,000 in the EU) each year are associated with infections caused by bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics. Infections cause significant economic damage (direct and indirect), billions of dollars.

The first antibiotics were used in the clinic in the 40-ies of the last century. Later, there were new classes of antibiotics, and a few years later were found bacterial strains resistant to the antibiotic.

This stability has a number of reasons. First, the bacteria are able to mutate. Mutations occur in the ribosomal RNA or protein some factor and change the properties of the ligand. Thus inhibitor that is an antibiotic that binds to the same or a nearby place, simply ceases to provide such a significant effect. After this mutant strain gets a competitive advantage and begins to multiply.

Bacteria as evolutionarily ancient organisms have learned to adapt to difficult environmental conditions. They have effective methods of developing resistance to antimicrobial agents, antibiotics, so as soon as there is an antibiotic in the treatment, after some time, we must expect that there will be a steady strain and the antibiotics cease to operate.

Since the widespread use of tetracycline and before the first reliably resistant strains it was about 9 years old. And for methicillin from the beginning of the application to the detection of resistant strains it has been only 2 years. In recent history, some antibiotics documented the emergence of resistant strains of the following year after the beginning of their application. The final point in the struggle to put virtually impossible. The only thing that can be done - to pay serious attention to the development of new classes of antibiotics to constantly replenish the arsenal and develop new drugs.

The development of new antibiotics

Most antibiotics that are currently used in the therapy - is either natural substances or derivatives of certain natural substances. And only a few antibiotics - a fully synthetic, invented by chemists substance.

There are several approaches to the development of new antibiotics. Basically they are trying to find new inhibitors by screening of those substances which microorganisms produce - either bacteria or fungi. Since the likelihood that such substances are synthesized is large, it is possible to sort just those substances which are released by bacteria or fungi. Most of the known antibiotics today detected in this way. An alternative method - a rational design, ie the use of data on the structure of the ribosome, the structure of the active site and attempt to come up with a molecule that interacts with a specific functional center and inhibit the reaction. Moreover, both approaches can be combined.

Stem Cells

12 Dec 2016

Biologist Dr. Doping tells about the methods of treatment of diseases with stem cells and prospects of development of this technology.

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The concept of stem cells has been introduced in order to explain why multicellular organisms that have different specialized tissues remain unchanged through time and space in the process of life. When the body is living, he is constantly losing those or other cells. For example, a person loses a protective layer of cells - skin cells, it constantly dying cells, intestinal cells die off. But at the same time we keep the same appearance, continue to live, to fight infections, consume food. The cells in the adult organism are recovered and resumed its seat.

Stem cell is a cell that exists in the body at any stage of development, can share and reproduce remains constant. On the other hand, the time needed by dividing it can change its program and to create other new, specialized cell types. The more specialized cell types can produce stem cells, the greater its potency considered possibilities. There are different types of stem cells: oligopotent, multipotent, pluripotent. Oligopotent cells can give a very small variety of specialized cells. Multipotent stem cells can give a sufficiently large variety of specialized cell types. For example, blood multipotent stem cell, by dividing it can occur from about 20 different types of immune system cells. If a transplant blood stem cells into a mouse that does not have mechanisms of hematopoiesis, the animal will fully recover hematopoiesis. There are also pluripotent cells. For example, embryonic cells, which then takes place over two hundred different types of specialized human tissues, called pluripotent.

Stem Cell First Research

For the first time the term "stem cell" has been used by the German scientist Valentin Haakerom at the end of the XIX century. He used the term in his writings, but gave him no further development. A Russian scientist Alexander Maximov in his study published in 1909, has developed this term. For example, blood cells Maximov constructed a theory of stem cells, and explained that it may be obtained from specialized descendants. The first experimental evidence that stem cells do exist in nature, obtained by American scientists James Till and Ernest McCulloch in the 1960s. They irradiated the mice with a lethal dose of radiation, and saved them from death by grafting only one single blood stem cells.

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Till and McCulloch proved experimentally previously developed theory of blood-forming cell in the bone marrow. Then Russian scientists Alexander Friedenstein and Joseph Chertkov showed that the bone marrow is not only hematopoietic stem cells but also the so-called stromal stem cells that give rise to bone, cartilage, fat. Joseph Chertkov found that, despite the fact that all stem cells - hematopoietic and stromal - are close by, they can not exchange their functions. Hematopoietic stem cells will produce only specialized blood cells and stromal stem cell will produce only specialized cells of the bone, cartilage. These stem cells are specialized.

The next milestone in the field of stem cells was an experimental proof of the existence of embryonic stem cells. In 1981, scientists and Matthew Martin Evans and Kaufman parallel with Martin Gale for example proved the existence of mouse embryonic stem cells that are pluripotent. They have unique properties entirely on the one hand, can be maintained indefinitely outside the body without changing the properties of the other - under certain conditions of contact with the external environment, for example back into the body can give rise to a variety of tissues, or whole living organism. Later, in 2007, for the genetic manipulation of embryonic stem the Nobel Prize was awarded to the cells. The next and last to date, a great discovery in this area was the publication of a Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka in 2006, the technology of somatic reprogramming adult cells to embryonic stem cell state. These induced cells are called pluripotent stem cells. In 2012, for its technology and its potential applications Shinya Yamanaka won the Nobel Prize. The first successful application of stem cells should be considered as a bone marrow transplant, which Edward Donnell Thomas spent in 1964. For this he received the Nobel Prize in 1990. Since blood stem cells are effectively used in treating hematological diseases.

Obtaining of stem cells

Methods for obtaining stem cells are unique to each type. In the body, some cells are surrounded by other cells and can not exist separately. They need special niches in which they can feel comfortable. Therefore, special conditions are needed for each specialized cell type. For example, hematopoietic stem cells isolated primarily from bone marrow by separation of those cells that are attached to the surfaces, and those cells will float. Blood - a liquid tissue that nowhere is attached. Based on this property, it is possible to separate those cells including blood stem cells are. Further, it is to highlight blood stem cell, it is necessary to conduct complicated technical manipulation using so-called selective markers. And of adherent cells can receive bone marrow stromal stem cells.

To isolate stem cells in the brain, it is necessary to penetrate into certain areas of the brain. Only there can be found a small number of stem cells in the brain. We perform these procedures with the person problematic. If aspiration, that is, taking the bone marrow - it is a relatively simple operation, then get into a head-to-person, do trepanation - the problem. Just get the stem cells of the hair. It's enough to pull a hair and put the cells of hair follicles in certain environmental conditions with growth factors. The obtained hair stem cells.

With regard to human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, which are intended for destruction. This group of cells growing on the fifth day after the in vitro fertilization procedure (IVF). Normally during IVF blastocysts obtained about a dozen. Couple the best of them comes to the implantation and developing into an embryo. The rest of the blastocyst can be stored for a fee, or simply thrown away. Science provides an opportunity to use this group of immature cells to study the development of processes and save other people. Today's world is thrown out on a weekly basis about 20-25 thousand blastocysts obtained for IVF. Because of their unique properties of these cell culture conditions is the most complex organism.

Induced pluripotent stem cells can be obtained from any adult cell, for example the skin or the blood. Cells were transferred to laboratory conditions and then held technological manipulations: reprogramming using defined gene, ie, a change of the genetic program, the return of the cells to an embryonic, youthful state. The development of this technology is now already allows to do without the use of genes, but nevertheless there is a change of the genetic program of work. Each cell type is unique and requires its own, unique method for isolating and maintaining.

The use of stem cells

Today, stem blood cells have been used successfully in the treatment of hematological diseases. People being treated for cancer of the blood stem cells already since 1964. Actually, do not treat the cells, and reduced after treatment. If there is a malignant transformation of blood cells, the drugs will kill all the blood cells and then transplanted healthy blood stem cells, for example, from a donor. The average efficiency of hematopoietic cells in the treatment of some forms of cancer reaches 70-80%.

But the widespread use of stem cells for treating diseases ends. All other technologies are in various stages of clinical trials. For example, now there are clinical trials for the treatment of diabetes. For this purpose, human embryonic stem cells. From them receive specialized beta cells and transplanted them to the people. In addition, there is the second phase of clinical trials of the use of human embryonic stem cells to restore vision. This therapy shows good efficacy and, more importantly, enables people with hereditary forms of the disease acquire vision. Also began to experience reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells to produce pigment epithelium and restoration of vision in age-related changes that occur in the macula - the central part of the eye. Of course, not all limited thereto, are in clinical trials for the use of cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. It turns out that adipose tissue is very attractive in terms of obtaining stem cells. In total in the world it takes about 4 thousands of clinical trials using stem cells, but approved technologies is almost non-existent.

Development in the field of stem cell technology

Over the past few decades, significantly decreased the rate of introduction of drugs developed using the technologies of the XX century. Advances in genomics and cell biology provide new opportunities to address not only the symptoms of disease, but also the root causes. To accelerate the introduction of modern technologies in practice in many countries are taking the necessary programs. In the United States it adopted the California initiative on the financing of research on embryonic stem cells in the amount of $ 3 billion for 10 years and expedited translation of scientific advances into practice. In this and other programs are actively developing research on the treatment of diabetes, cancer, sight restoration, treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injuries. Scientists transplanted neurons obtained in the laboratory in order to restore the affected areas of neural tissue damaged disease.

In Europe, also are in clinical trials of therapy in age-related macular degeneration using RPE cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Scientists have investigated the possibility of treatment of Parkinson's disease cells obtained from fetal material. The planned clinical trials will be used already neurons derived from reprogrammed cells. Undoubtedly, the studies are of a different nature, when the cells, eg, blood or fat used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The reasons for this are not very clear, but if it will help, then why not use it? In Japan, active clinical trials using human induced pluripotent stem cells.

A number of pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetes, Parkinson's, heart disease, are the target of ongoing clinical trials. It has even amended the federal law on medicinal products to accelerate the entry of new therapeutic products. These changes facilitate and accelerate the time to market of innovative products, it is expected that changes in the law will reduce the period of withdrawal of medicine from 15 to 5-7 years.

At the moment, many studies have come to the fact that the technology necessary to work longer in mice and in humans. To conduct experimental studies in humans will still have to make the technology safe and effective. If competently and responsible approach to research and promotion of the drugs, they can have a 100 percent guarantee to market.

Open questions

If you look at yourself in the mirror, you can see that each cell is in place. And it was due to the natural process of individual development. In the laboratories we are able to get a lot of different cells that are similar to the body's cells. Now mankind is to develop such technology with which the desired cell can be substituted anywhere on the body. The main problem that exists and will exist for a long time - is to ensure getting the right cells at the right time and the right place. This problem doctors will decide in the next decade.

Evolutionary biology of love

12 Dec 2016

Dr. Doping tells about juvenilization, monogamy and stable affections. Where a person has appeared capable of sustainable, long-term romantic love to form permanent couples? What are the neurological and neurochemical bases of social behaviors and interpersonal relationships? What is the theory of Lovejoy?

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In recent years, much attention is paid to the neurological and neurochemical bases of social behaviors and interpersonal relationships. The most striking finding is that in humans and other animals work, in fact, one and the same system of regulation of these complex behaviors. The animals in the central nervous system has a very ancient neural circuits, neural networks, it specializes in the management of sexual and social behavior.

An important role in these systems play neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin (or very similar to them, their related neuropeptides). And do these neuropeptides are almost identical in different animals, and they are very similar. In all animals, they regulate the social and sexual behavior, although the specific mechanisms of action may vary in different species. To improve cognitive function Cogitum, Piracetam, Semax, Phenotropil, Cortexin would help.

Neurobiological studies show that love - something more than "basic emotion". It is associated with certain "higher" cognitive functions. In particular, romantic love includes the activity of the cortex responsible for social cognition (working with information about other people) and perception (the image of) himself. This perceive indirect confirmation of the psychological theory that love is based on the desire to expand the internal self-image by turning the other person in the image.

Mechanisms of suppression of aggression

12 Dec 2016

Dr. Doping tells about aggression in primate mechanisms restore relations after the conflict and stress hormones. What are the views on the mechanisms of suppression of aggression in primates? How do the biological mechanisms of the restoration of relations after the conflict? Does the situation conflict stress the aggressor?

In his book "Aggression (so-called" evil ")," Konrad Lorenz addressed the problem of aggression. Man as a species is very aggressive and kill their brothers, in this case within the larger events, such as war, thousands and even millions. He explained by the fact that man is descended from animals that are used in the vast majority of plant food. In other words, it did not come from prey. According to the scientist, carnivorous animals exist innate mechanisms of inhibition of aggression, but there are no such mechanisms of herbivorous animals. My western-primatologists colleagues in the late 70's have questioned this statement, and not by chance.

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Biological mechanisms for the restoration of relations after the conflict only similar in monkeys and humans. After the conflict, there is an internal motivation that subconsciously pushes the former enemies to each other to be reconciled. The maximum of such psychological or physiological condition occurs after the end of the conflict, and within five minutes after him. Children tend to behave this way. If it's normal children, brought up in a society, and not in isolation, and they see his former opponent, the opponent as a member of the group, it is almost a 100% chance they will restore their relationship. There is a roster of who, how and with whom to tolerate.

We used test for the isolation of the stress hormone (cortisol) in the saliva. This non-invasive technique, no one is afraid, so we asked the children after a certain amount of time after the end of conflict, just spit in a test tube. Then asked to spit on the next day at the same time in a situation where the conflict was not, and compared the cortisol levels in a situation where there was a conflict, but the reconciliation was, and in a situation where there was a conflict, but no reconciliation was not followed (one hundred percent of reconciliation are not You can always watch). It turned out that in a situation when the conflict flared up, a fight took place, but reconciliation is not forthcoming, and the aggressor and the victim's cortisol levels were elevated compared to the background. But if there has been a reconciliation, he fell to the background level. In other words, we have been able to prove that the psychological and physiological stress tests are not the only one who was sent to the aggression, but also the aggressor.

What is the emotional trauma?

12 Dec 2016

How people react to stressful situations

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Trauma, or as they say psychologists, trauma, is a condition that occurs due to severe extreme stress events. Such an event necessarily implies a threat to life or physical integrity of both the individual and other people, such as his relatives. In ordinary consciousness by trauma often understand the household negative events: resentment, conflict, abuse, or mental breakdowns. Often, clients and therapists even the experts in this field correctly define it.

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Trauma carries a certain risk of mental disorders. It is known that 20% of people who have been subjected to extreme events often begin to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. This notional figure is usually characteristic of the people who passed the war. Depending on to which people have undergone traumatic event, this percentage could vary. In trauma research it is now the most important and pressing question - why some people, having experienced some severe stress, can recover quickly, while others develop post-traumatic stress disorder.

There are two types of traumatic stressors, that is, the factors that cause stress. The first type - is the extreme single events. As an example, car accidents, robbery, assault, sexual assault, which is non-recurring in nature. The impact of such stressors result in a clinical variant to the classic PTSD, with its main symptoms. These include the invasion of traumatic experiences, dreams, intrusive thoughts, avoidance of traumatic experience in which a person tries to eliminate everything that is mindful of the injury, and the result is fenced off from life as a whole. It is also a physiological excitement: reactivity, increased response to the impact of the environment. Such excitation is characterized by nervousness and insomnia.

The second type of traumatic situations - is repetitive traumatic impacts. As an example, acts of war, living on the territory of military action, repeated cases of sexual violence in the family. It is a chronic trauma, it is transferred to a person much heavier, because apart from the traumatic effects of a person is experiencing more and repetition, he lives in constant tension. It suffers from the personality, system of its outlook for the world becomes a hostile person. Such repeated traumatic exposure affects the self-esteem, self-esteem, a person perceives himself as weak and unable to somehow interact with the outside world, and it ultimately leads to the development of personality disorders.

Behavioral types of human in Stress Situation

12 Dec 2016

Psychologist Dr. Doping tells about the stress response, the people of A-type and temperament with cardiac diseases due. In what situations are manifested psychological types of the human? Is it possible to change the type of human behavior? And what types of behaviors identified American cardiologists Friedman and Rosenman?

The concepts of psychological and behavioral type of person is very close; in turn, they are close to the concept of "temperament." This is some characteristics of a person or animal personality, which do not change over time.

There are active and passive style of reactions to stress. I do not like this definition because the word "active" and "passive" are in Russian, a clear evaluative. It is preferable to call these behavioral types A and B, that did in his time, American cardiologists Friedman and Rosenman. The first work appeared long ago - in 1958, but that it is no less interesting. Behavioral type A is an ambitious, aggressive. The argument for it is important not to establish the truth and not insist on his point of view, but to win. To do this, it can completely change their views. Behavioral Type B is the complete opposite. These are people who are not prone to conflicts. To cope with stress- buy Phenibut, Afobazol, Phenazepam and Selank.

We can do an experiment on animals. Take one of the young rats and enclose them to another with opposite behavioral type. When the young grow up, they reproduce the behavioral type of their parents.

FAQ: Post Neolithic food

12 Dec 2016

5 facts about the formation of the culture of food and its impact on human development

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Food and meal occupy a special place in the culture of almost all ages and nations. We can not explain it only physiological needs. Myths are full of stories about the appearance of proper human food and that man is man, it is partaking to a certain type of food. Below - a few stories associated with the time when the tradition was formed human nutrition.

  • 1.Everyone knows the term "Neolithic revolution", although now it is not as popular as, say, 50 years ago - modern ideas about why people suddenly began to abandon the traditional way of life-gatherer-fisher hunter, quite different from the original Gordon Childe concept , the author of the term and the very concept of the Neolithic revolution. He believed that it was the economic base, but we understand that they could not become a source neolitization processes: the first stages of development of agriculture, livestock require enormous effort, while giving an unstable result. Paleoanthropological evidence indicates that Early Neolithic community that is already gone over to agriculture and livestock, had much lower rates of life expectancy, health status, etc., than their contemporaries, preserved traditional way of hunter-gatherers. So the logic in the assumption that there is no economic grounds.

    Perhaps we are dealing with a complex set of religious ideas and aspirations of the person to whom then joined rationality. Nevertheless man surrounds himself with a new world: home, homes, house plants and animals - that is, forms the built environment. Thus, if talk about the Neolithic revolution, it was a creation of the built environment, and not just jump to a particular type of food.
  • 2.We have a well-established term "early farmers." It was assumed that they are bred mainly cereals - wheat and barley - and ate them. But, as shown by studies of the isotopic composition of bone tissue, it is not so. Early landowners, that is, specializing in agriculture, there was: livestock and agriculture develop comprehensively. Of course, the crops have become an integral part of the human diet, but only part of it, because the harvest is not guaranteed, and at that time was short. However, the interpretation of surprising properties of grain yield in the tens or hundreds of times more yield than was sown, that is to revive dying lies at the basis of many cults, leaving the roots in the deep antiquity of preliterate.
  • 3.The transition to a new food is associated with physiological rearrangements. Genetics modern populations allows us to see those microevolution processes that led to the consolidation and increase in the frequency of recurrence of certain lines, - processes that bring benefits. In this respect, it is best studied in the process of adjusting to the dairy food - the first man among the animals began to consume milk, infant food, throughout life. In fact, it is the food of infants and young children; man to successfully digest milk, it should keep the baby enzymes. Therefore, we can assume a certain direction of microevolution process in those populations where adults frequent this enzyme - in the north and north-west of Europe, in the Baltic region.
  • This does not mean that in other areas milk was not included in the diet, but here it was probably vital. After all, the northern areas - it is not enough ultraviolet radiation as a result - rickets, a terrible disease: changes in the skeleton of a woman after suffering rickets in childhood is likely to lead to the fact that the offspring will be born with complications, or not at all. So that the population is protected from rickets, will be much more successful in microevolutionary respect (that is selectively important trait can be judged from the experience of European settlement on the territory of Greenland). The gene that allows a person to produce lactase into adulthood, confirms the importance of selective type of food for the north-western nations of antiquity. And he definitely originated in Europe, possibly in the Paleolithic period - 10-12 thousand years ago - or so later, here opinions diverge geneticists. To imrpove brain and cognitive function buy Cogitum, Piracetam, Cyanocobalamin injection, Semax and Phenotropil.
  • 4.Adapting to human food have different effects on the genetics and physiology. There are diseases associated with intolerance to certain grain proteins - such as celiac disease, known to the ancient Greeks; it was described in classical times, although the etiology was not completely clear. So far, not exactly determined which genes cause the intolerance. But it is clear that the complex of traits that determine the possibility of acceptance or rejection of gluten could not be selective significance because the grain - the basis, if not the Neolithic, the Late Neolithic "food package". Also, there may be some inheritance linked genes: for example, a very interesting feature as favism - a disease that does not allow a person to perceive the beans, even their pollen, but it protects against malaria, which is important for the southern regions. Here we are dealing with genetic and physiological characteristics of the complex.
  • 5.Formation of a new type of power generates and economic features of them. In the era of early civilizations and later appeared societies that specialize in agriculture, food consumed, in fact, almost vegetarian. But initially man - carnivore, omnivore. The larger plants, especially cereals, it uses, the more he needs substance which it obtains in this diet. For example, it needs salt - sodium chloride it spends to maintain homeostasis and blood, and digestion. And then - problem: where the seed brings a good harvest, will never be the salt; where there is salt, there will be a high yield. In this - the cause of the formation of the universal trade relations of the time: where are sowing, no salt. These trade relations determine the specialization: the owners of salt lakes or salt deposits are in pole position. Thus, the new warehouse supply forms and settlement structure, the structure of economic relations. This happens automatically, not intentionally - and this principle is important for the whole theme.